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棱镜门后续事件:持续追踪

棱镜门后续事件:持续追踪

美国"监控门"事件揭秘者斯诺登31日再次对外揭秘,显示美国情报部门2011年实施231次网络攻击,其中近75%针对伊朗、俄罗斯、中国、朝鲜等国家。诺登此前曾披露,美国情报部门拥有超大规模"黑色预算",近年来美国每年情报预算都维持在数百亿美元,2011财年预算达546亿美元,此后略有下降。但2013财年仍有526亿美元。
斯诺登 棱镜门

2013-9-1

 

斯诺登再揭美精灵项目 近75%攻击针对中俄等国

2013-09-01 09:04中国新闻社

中新社华盛顿8月31日电 美国"监控门"事件揭秘者斯诺登31日再次对外揭秘,显示美国情报部门2011年实施231次网络攻击,其中近75%针对伊朗、俄罗斯、中国、朝鲜等国家。

《华盛顿邮报》当天报道,网络攻击数据来自斯诺登提供的一份资金预算文件。在代号为"精灵"(GENIE)的项目中,美国计算机专家侵入外国计算机网络,将恶意软件秘密植入世界各地的计算机、路由器和防火墙,把它们置于美国的秘密控制之下。

该报称,预计到今年年底,"精灵"将会控制至少85000个恶意植入软件。在2008年,这一数字仅为21252。斯诺登披露的数据表明,美国网络攻击活动比之前了解的更广泛、更活跃。

该报说,美国情报部门经常通过这些"恶意软件"获取信息,但奥巴马政府将网络攻击视为"机密",拒绝公开承认。美国前政府官员告诉该报,在231次网络攻击活动中,近75%的攻击都指向伊朗、俄罗斯、中国、朝鲜等国以及诸如核不扩散之类的活动。但文件并没有披露美国情报部门是如何具体操作这些"网络攻击"的。

作为"精灵"项目的下一阶段,国家安全局已在开发代号为"涡轮"(TURBINE)的项目,通过在线自动化系统收集大量恶意植入软件的信息,并进行主动攻击。

国家安全局发言人在邮件中向记者表示,国防部不从事任何领域的经济间谍活动,在网络领域也是如此。

斯诺登此前曾披露,美国情报部门拥有超大规模"黑色预算",近年来美国每年情报预算都维持在数百亿美元,2011财年预算达546亿美元,此后略有下降。但2013财年仍有526亿美元。

斯诺登目前身在俄罗斯,他因披露美国情报机构大规模监控计划而闻名全球。尽管美国要求将斯诺登引渡回国,俄罗斯8月初仍决定给予斯诺登为期一年的临时避难许可。

华盛顿邮报关于526亿黑色预算的相关图表:

 

America's secret intelligence budget, in 11 (nay, 13) charts

By Dylan Matthews, Published: August 29 at 2:12 pmE-mail the writer

Barton Gellman, the crazy good investigative reporter who broke the NSA story for us a few months back, has a major scoop with Greg Miller and researcher Julie Tate breaking down the Black Budget, a $52.6 billion portion of the federal government that goes to the CIA, NSA, and other secret intelligence agencies. They got the budget from Edward Snowden, who, you'll recall, was also the whistleblower responsible for the NSA story. Since 2007, we've known how much the total Black Budget is (before that, withsome years excepted, we didn't even know that), but not how much is spent on specific things. Now we know that too.

You can read a PDF of the budget's basics here, and read Gellman and Miller's storyhere. Wilson Andrews and Todd Lindeman at the graphics team did an awesome interactive breaking down the budget here. But if you're in a rush, here are the basics of what we know now that we didn't yesterday.

We spend more, across the whole Black Budget, on providing warnings of impending big events than on fighting terrorism or WMDs:

funding_by_priority

spending_by_function

The most commonly spoken language in the intelligence community is Spanish, followed by Arabic. Farsi, not so much:

foreign_language

The CIA, NSA and National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) receive more than 68 percent of the black budget. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Program's (NGP) budget has grown over 100 percent since 2004.

The CIA's our best-funded intelligence-related agency:

spending_by_agency

Though its funding fell in FY2013:

cia_historical

The overwhelming majority of CIA spending is on collecting intelligence:

cia_breakdown

National Reconnaissance Office (and other reconnaissance) spending, meanwhile, has been stagnant for a while:

reconnaissance_historical

And its spending is also mainly on collections:

reconnaissance_breakdown

Our cryptography programs have also seen stagnant spending since 2010, after a big jump from 2007 to 2010:

crypto_historical

Which goes to more diverse functions:

crypto_breakdown

The Community Management Account, which is led by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, saw funding go way up as the DNI office was phased in, but has seen it fall since 2011:

cma_historical

It spends mainly on management activities:

cma_breakdown

As the above shows, each agency has a unique breakdown of expenses that reflect the priorities of its mission:


 

2013-7-20

斯诺登事件后不久,英美两国即对相关方施加压力。

英国首相卡梅伦下令其资深政策顾问、内阁秘书长杰里米接触《卫报》总编辑拉斯布里杰,要求对方上交或销毁美国国家安全局承包商前雇员斯诺登泄露的机密文件。随着政府施加的压力越来越大,7月20日,储存文件的硬盘、内存芯片在来自政府通信总部的技术人员的监视下,被角磨机和其他工具所弄碎。 

另外,斯诺登曾使用的加密邮件商lavabit已营业10年,在受到压力后选择不配合对斯诺登的调查,于8月9日宣布停止向40万用户提供邮件服务。lavabit所有人在公开信中表示,由于国会通过的法律,他无法叙述过去六周中的经历,并称他得到了一个非常重要的教训:如果国会不采取行动或是没有立法上的前提,强烈(原文斜体加重)建议用户不要将隐私数据存放到与美国有物理联系的公司。

斯诺登对lavabit的举动评论是受其激励,并提醒大家关注9月美国会重开时,互联网工业的立场和游说究竟是站在自由互联网这边还是附和美国国家安全局NSA。

德国内务部长和司法部长分别提出,应避免使用美国服务器、抵制美国互联网公司。德国并派出外交人员与美协商美国国家安全局据称对德官员监控的问题。

 

My Fellow Users,

I have been forced to make a difficult decision: to become complicit in crimes against the American people or walk away from nearly ten years of hard work by shutting down Lavabit. After significant soul searching, I have decided to suspend operations. I wish that I could legally share with you the events that led to my decision. I cannot. I feel you deserve to know what's going on--the first amendment is supposed to guarantee me the freedom to speak out in situations like this. Unfortunately, Congress has passed laws that say otherwise. As things currently stand, I cannot share my experiences over the last six weeks, even though I have twice made the appropriate requests.

What's going to happen now? We've already started preparing the paperwork needed to continue to fight for the Constitution in the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals. A favorable decision would allow me resurrect Lavabit as an American company.

This experience has taught me one very important lesson: without congressional action or a strong judicial precedent, I would _strongly_ recommend against anyone trusting their private data to a company with physical ties to the United States.

Sincerely,
Ladar Levison
Owner and Operator, Lavabit LLC

Defending the constitution is expensive! Help us by donating to the Lavabit Legal Defense Fund here.

 

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