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Barry Sautman:自由西藏”運動的神話

Barry Sautman:自由西藏”運動的神話

清华公共管理学院, cui zhiyuan
清华大学公共管理学院2009年10月9日讲演提纲
Barry Sautman
Myths of the “Free Tibet” Movement
“自由西藏”運動的神話

Barry Sautman
Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

Free Tibet” central theme is Tibet as colony “自由西藏”的中心主題是西藏作為殖民地

Intended to mobilize Westerners, especially converts to Tibetan Buddhism 旨在動員西方人,尤其是轉換為藏傳佛教

Tibet as colony said to involve occupation, “flood” of Han Chinese migrants, cultural genocide, economic exploitation 西藏作為殖民地說是牽涉佔領,漢人移民的 “大量湧入”,滅絕文化,經濟剝削

Tibet as colony seeks to invoke anti-colonial sentiment, particularly among people of countries that practiced colonialism 西藏作為殖民地,目的是引起反殖民情緒,尤其是對實行殖民主義國家的人民

An historical irony, as China was semi-colony of Europeans and Japanese 歷史的諷刺,如中國是歐洲人和日本人的半殖民地

Colonialism was special oppression of colonized to benefit colonizing state’s elites 殖民主義是壓迫被殖民统治的國家,受益殖民國家的領袖

Every colony had official racial discrimination; denied colonized many rights enjoyed by colonizers 每一個殖民地有官方的種族歧視,剝奪殖民地人民許多殖民统治者享有的權利

Colonized peoples despoiled of land and had huge population losses; were impoverished by colonizers 殖民地人民被掠奪土地和有很大的人口損失; 被殖民统治者導致貧困

Tibetans have same rights in law as other Chinese, plus preferential policies (family planning, school admissions, employment as officials, economic empowerment) 在法律上藏族人與其他中国人有相同的權利,加上優惠的政策(計劃生育,升學,就業為官員,經濟權力)

Position of colonized in world economy diminished sharply; cultures destroyed; forced Westernization大減少殖民地人民在世界經濟的地位;破壞文化;強制推行西方化

Rural Tibetans given land after 1959; life-span, health levels and population increased greatly 1959年之後,給予土地於農村的西藏人; 壽命、健康水平和人口大量增加

Educational levels and income of Tibetans still low, but much higher than 50 years ago 西藏人教育水平和收入仍然很低,但遠高於50年前

Tibetans not forced to adopt Confucianism or Han religious practices 西藏人不會被迫採取儒學或漢人宗教習俗

European colonialists extinguished 15% of world’s languages; 92-94% of Tibetans speak Tibetan 歐洲殖民统治者消滅了15%的世界語言; 92-94%的西藏人說藏族語言

Tibet not “occupied state,” because it was not independent. China’s sovereignty always recognized by other states and UN 西藏不是“被佔領的國家”,因為它不是獨立的。中國的主權一直被其他國家和聯合國承認

UN has recognized several “occupied countries,” (e.g. Namibia, E. Timor, Palestinian territories), Main features are official race discrimination, land seizures and implantations of settlers. Tibet has none of these 聯合國已經承認幾個 “被佔領的國家”(如納米比亞,東帝汶,巴勒斯坦領土),主要特徵是官方的種族歧視,非法徵地,定居者的遷入。這一切西藏都沒有

No “flood” of settlers: 2000 census found Han Chinese proportion in Tibetan areas fell from 23.4% in 1990 to 20.2% in 2000 沒有定居者大量進入:2000年的人口普查發現,漢人在西藏地區的比例由1999年的23.4%降至2000年的20.2%

Very few Han who come to Tibet sent by government; most stay for only 3 years 極少數漢人被政府發送到西藏,大多數只停留3年

“Tibet movement” claims that mere fact of migration creates cultural genocide and that Tibetan Buddhism is repressed “西藏運動” 稱移民事實上造成文化滅絕和藏傳佛教受到壓制

China does suppress separatism; in 2007, before 2008 riots, there were about 130 Tibetan separatists in prison 中國鎮壓分裂,在2007年,2008年騷亂之前,大約有130個西藏分裂主義分子在獄中
No repression of Buddhism as such: 3000 monasteries and temples in Tibetan areas, same number as in 1951; 150,000 monks and nuns, highest proportion in Buddhist world 沒有鎮壓佛教等:在藏族地區的3000寺廟,與1951年相同數目,15萬僧尼,佛教世界的最高比例

Since 1990s, a blossoming of Tibetan literature, art. But Tibetan exiles want only religious-oriented lit. and art. They object to any “Chinese” influences on Tibetan culture, but not Western influences 1990年代以來,藏族文學、藝術盛開。但是西藏流亡者只想有宗教為導的文學和藝術。他們反對任何 “中國” 對西藏文化的影響,但不是西方的影響

Young Tibetan exiles highly Indianized, Westernized 年輕的流亡藏人非常印度化、西化

Exploitation was central to colonialism, but Tibetan areas highly subsidized by Chinese government. Mining, forestry industries in Tibetan areas lose money. 剝削是殖民主義的核心,但藏族地區高度受中國政府補貼。西藏地區的礦業、林業工業虧損。

Tibet unlike colonial India, which raised British living standards at expense of Indians 西藏不像印度殖民地,犧牲印度人利益,而提升英國的生活水平

No significant challenge to myths of Free Tibet movement, which are based on racist stereotypes about Chinese as cruel and money-obsessed 對自由西藏運動的神話,沒有重要的挑戰,這是基於對中國種族主義作為殘酷和著迷金錢的偏見

To settle Tibet Question, Dalai Lama will have to recognize that Tibet is legitimately part of China and Free Tibet movement will have to reconsider its myths 為了解決西藏問題,達賴必須承認西藏是中國合法的一部分,和自由西藏運動將重新考慮它的神話

But Chinese government can take steps that contribute to settlement of Tibet Question 但是,中國政府可以採取步驟,有助於解決西藏問題

Should drop social evolutionist viewpoint and concentrate on fighting against Han chauvinism 應當放棄社會進化論的觀點,和集中力量打擊大漢族主義

Should create anti-discrimination legislation 應建立反歧視法例

Should make a Tibetan party secretary of Tibet Autonomous Region 應設立西藏自治區西藏黨委書記職位

Should extend preferential policies to private economy 應擴大優惠政策至民營經濟

Should restrict migration to Tibetan areas and provide vocational education so Tibetans could fill more skilled jobs 應該限制遷移到西藏地區,並提供職業教育,讓更多的藏族人可以做技術工作

Should pay stipends to rural Tibetan families for every child attending school 應津貼西藏農村家庭每一個兒童上學

Should drop ban on religious people becoming Communist Party members 應當放棄禁止宗教人士成為共產黨員

Should raise quota on number of monks and nuns要提高僧尼的配額數量

Should properly treat those convicted of separatism 應正確對待那些被定罪為分裂主義的人

Such actions may diminish hold of “Free Tibet” movement’s myths and promote solution to Tibet Question. 這種行動可能減少堅持 “自由西藏” 運動的神話,促進解決西藏問題。

Traditional Tibet:
Central-Western Tibet (U-Tsang), under the Dalai Lama’s Regime; Eastern Tibet (Kham & Amdo) not under his regime 傳統的西藏:達賴喇嘛统治中西方的西藏(衛藏); 西藏東部(康區和安多 )不是在他统治之下

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